The history of legislation of the city of Moscow is closely connected with the history of development of modern Russia. Being an integral part of the single legal space of the Russian Federation, the legislation of the capital was formed by the Moscow City Duma with unfailing compliance with the constitutional norms of the democratic, law-governed and social state. The specific features of modern Russia development are reflected, in full measure, in three stages of formation of the legislation in the city of Moscow.
First stage – 1994–1998 – initial formation and gradual filling of the legal field of Moscow. This period may be distinguished by adoption of the first in the Moscow history act of the constitutional legislation predetermining the vector of the legal base development – the Charter of the City of Moscow. This Charter formulated the basic principles of organization and realization of state power and local self-government in the capital, delineated the authorities and responsibility of the bodies of representative and executive power, defined the principle of territorial organization of Moscow. From 1995 the budgetary process is legally controlled in the city of Moscow. The exclusive power of the Duma includes consideration of a draft city budget and control of its fulfillment.
Second stage – 1999–2004 – improvement of the legislation connected, among others, with changes at the federal legislative level and delineation of powers of the federal, regional bodies of state power and the local self-government bodies. The Moscow City Duma determines the procedure of activities of the local self-government bodies, the principles of allocation of incomes from regional taxes and duties, other incomes of the city of Moscow among the budget of the city and budgets of municipal formations as well as changes of their territories with regard to the people’s opinion. Improvement of the life quality of the population is one of the key targets in the social policy of the city of Moscow. Therefore, the priority goal of the lawmaking activities of the Moscow deputies was and still remains the development and adoption of the laws called to resolve problems in the social sphere. In Moscow the legislation provides for different kinds and forms of in-kind help and privileges to the families with children aimed to stimulate families to have more children, support of low-income families, families with disabled children, families with adopted children.
Third stage – 2005 and further on – is characterized by further development and systematization of the existing stable legislative system called to regulate effectively the key spheres in the life of the city. Availability until recently of a great number of departmental laws urged to introduce their codification in the legislative practice of the Duma. This step became the main distinguishing feature of the modern stage of the legislation development in the capital. The Duma adopted the Electoral Code of the City of Moscow (2005), the Code of the City of Moscow on Administrative Offenses (2007), the Town Building Code of the City of Moscow (2008). The main directions and content of the legislative activity of the Duma were identified based on key benchmarks in the state policy, urgent goals of the socioeconomic development of the city of Moscow. At present a wide legislative base is formed in the capital permitting to effectively regulate the legal relationships in all spheres of life of the megapolis.
Legislation of the City of Moscow as of 01.08.2020
The Duma passed 1521 laws of the city of Moscow, out of which the greatest number of drafts were submitted by the Mayor of Moscow – 931 draft laws, deputies, commissions and factions of the Duma – 520. The draft laws were also submitted by other subjects with the right of legislative initiative: the Prosecutor of the city of Moscow – 26 draft laws, the Council of municipal formations – 23 draft laws, the Moscow City Election Commission – 15, Commissioner for human rights in Moscow, the Ombudsman for the Rights of Children in the city of Moscow, the Chairman of the Moscow City Court, the Organizing Committee of the Duma, the representative bodies of local self-government, the Reconciliation Commission (of 1st convocation) – 1 each. The adopted laws of the city of Moscow by subjects of the right of legislative initiative may be grouped as follows (Diagram 1).
The greater number of adopted laws (27%) regulates the legal relationships in finance, 24% - in organization of state power and local self-government, 14% - in city economy, 12% - in the labor, social development and culture legislation. The adopted laws of the city of Moscow may be distributed by subjects of regulation as follows (Diagram 2).